We proposed [Portier2009] a methodology for the construction of
multi-structured documents. We add tools for documenting and managing the
evolution of the terms and relations created by the users for the description of structures.
The following ideas have been conceived in the context of a digital library
project that includes a group of philosophers interested by the work of Jean-Toussaint
Our documents are digital images of manuscripts' pages (more than
35 000 pages). From a technical point of view, our users transcribe, annotate and
reorder those pages.
The transcription is the association of the image of a manuscript's page with the
digitized version of its textual content. Many levels of transcription have been
from the diplomatic transcription whose result should be the exact copy
of the manuscript (the layout of the page is retained, abbreviations are not
expanded, etc.) to transcriptions that remain easy to read. However, with the rich
structures of existing philological software platforms this choice can be
postponed to the editorial phase when multiple versions of the transcription will
be produced. Moreover, the TEI defines
well documented and customizable tag sets (thanks to the Roma tool that generates
validators for ad-hoc customizations). Finally,
there are useful case studies ([Huitfeldt2004], [Gants2006], ...) of electronic editions projects. They give us
perspectives on the processes of choosing a tag set, establishing encoding rules,
etc. They also introduce to more general problems that most certainly appeared from
the required formalization of electronic edition. For example, the two notions of
representation and interpretation benefit from being presented as a conceptual
continuum: "common sense" always seems to be able to distinguish between the two
concepts, to draw a border, but every time we look closer this border vanishes. As
a second example, the computer programs considered as tools make the interactive
relationship between the user and the text explicit.
A particularity of the Jean-Toussaint Desanti Archives is the necessity of
reordering the handwritten pages. In fact, we have noticed that this problem
applies to many projects of electronic edition of handwritten manuscripts. Often,
the pages are initially disordered: the documents may have passed through
the hands of many people and lost their initial order. More importantly, for
testing philological hypothesis, it is often interesting to reorder collections of
pages, even though these reorderings do not correspond to explicit choices of the
author. We choose two examples from the J.T.Desanti Archives in order to
illustrate this problem.
For the first example, let say a user isolates the four pages of Figure 1 from a set of unclassified pages. Since three of the four
pages are being numbered in their top right corner, he easily manages to reorder
them. Nonetheless this reordering is to be considered as an interpretation and the
original order and context must be preserved. Later, inside an other unclassified
set of pages, a page is found that shares many similarities with the first page of
the new four pages collection. Some researcher concludes that the newly
created collection may be an alternative version of the page just found.
For the second example, a user finds, in the last page of a
notebook, a reference to an unknown appendix (see Figure 2). Later, the appendix is found inside an unclassified set
of pages (see Figure 3). He will insert the appendix after the
last page of the notebook, but the original context in which the appendix was found
must be preserved as it is highly significant since it helped to link the content
the notebook with the themes developed by the unclassified set of pages where the
appendix was found.
We spent some time describing this simple situation of reordering set of pages ...
find it interesting and relevant to the forthcoming considerations. A reordering is
formally quite simple: we move a few pages, we add some annotations ... But it may
convey valuable interpretations.
We divided the users activity into three main operations: transcription, reordering
and annotation. We briefly covered the first two and should now introduce to the third
one. However, the annotation operation is much more generic: transcription as well
reordering depend on annotations. But it seemed convenient to introduce them
separately. Our annotations are simple relations and we keep them in a RDF store.
Users create those relations in a GUI (see Figure 4) that
imitates the graph structure of the data.
Those relations are used to build a faceted
navigation interface (see Figure 5).
We should now clarify our orientation towards vocabularies of terms. According to
Patrick Durusau [Durusau2006], vocabularies of terms and relations
have to be defined before any annotations are created. However, as explained by Dino
Buzzetti and Jerome McGann [Buzzetti2006], a new annotation modifies
the semiotic nature of the document by facilitating new interpretations that can
themselves arouse the desire to add new annotations in order to formalize those
interpretations, ... thus feeding a theoretically endless hermeneutic process.
Thereby, it seems necessary to allow a continuous creation of terms. Our work focuses
on how to effectively enable this creation. That being said, we recognize the
relevance and importance of capitalization work such as the TEI. However, we try to
focus on the problem of the emergence of annotation vocabularies when some
researchers study a set of documents.
We first provide a short introduction to the notion of "sign".
We then describe the evolutions of our model for the construction of
multi-structured documents. Next, we introduce the notion of the "trace of users
interactions" and we show how this trace can be used for managing and documenting
vocabularies of terms and relations. Then, we explain how a very interesting activity
confrontation emerged from the possibility of interacting with the trace. We will
illustrate the notions with examples from our philological platform named
DINAH (Dinah is Irrelevantly Not Alice Heron). In the end, we will compare DINAH with
other philological platforms.
A model for the construction of multi-structured documents
We first give some definitions:
A resource is anything uniquely identified by an URI. Fragments, intervals,
zones, terms, classes, binary relations, vocabularies and documents
A fragment is a part of document content. Our documents are
textual documents and manuscripts images. In the case of textual documents a fragment
is the pair (D, (inf,
sup)) where D is a document identifier, and (inf, sup) is an integer interval addressing
a part of the
document. In the case of images a fragment is the pair (I, ((x1, y1), (x2, y2)) where
I is an image identifier
and ((x1, y1), (x2, y2)) are the coordinates of a rectangular zone of the image.
A term is a string of characters.
A class is a set of terms.
A binary relation R(x, y) links together two resources
A vocabulary is a set of binary relations
A multi-structured document is
a document with fragments participating in relations that belong to multiple
How can these vocabularies be constructed? This is the problem
we address. But before proceeding further, we illustrate the previous definitions
with an example. Consider the following scenario: a philologist finds a
consistent subset about Marx inside a stack of pages of consequent size. He isolates
this subset by creating a new collection (using the GUI of Figure 4). He creates a relation ”mainSubject” between this
collection and the term ”marx” from the class ”Author”. He starts the transcription
collection and also creates relations, such as ”quotation”, ”citationTitle”, between
intervals of the transcribed text and the document (using the GUI of Figure 8). He discovers later that this collection is in fact a
preparation for another work he found in the archive. He creates a relation
”preparationFor” between the two collections. Etc. Etc. These newly created relations
dynamically update the faceted navigation interface that can be used to find specific
collections or pages by iterative refinement (see Figure 5).
How is it that, for example, a user chooses to place the relation ”citationTitle”
within the ”citations” vocabulary while he affects the relation ”hasLine” to the
”physicalStructure” vocabulary? In a multi-users context, how a user will know the
meaning of a relation created by someone else? We will address the first question
the remaining parts of this section, and the second question in the next section.
should now recall some characteristics of the existing models for the representation
of multi-structured documents.
Multi-structured documents have to be analyzed in their historical context where
the most used formalisms for documents representation (first SGML then XML)
implied tree structures. That is why this problem has so far been considered under
the technical point of view of overlapping hierarchies. From our previous example,
let say a page has been transcribed and relations have been created to indicate
some citations. Then, the lines of text are isolated in order to align the
transcription with the manuscript facsimile. It might happen that a quotation
overlaps two lines and there would be locally a graph structure: a natural use of
XML becomes impossible (see Figure 9). We now describe
different solutions for the representation of multi-structured documents.
We divide the set of existing solutions into four classes: historical solutions, adhoc
solutions, models not compatible with XML and finally models compatible with XML.
CONCUR [Goldfarb1990] is a feature of SGML designed to allow the
integration inside a same document of tags extracted from different DTDs. Thus, if
definitions of the overlapping tags appear in different DTDs, the representation
problem of multi-structured documents is solved. However, because of its complexity,
this SGML proposal has never been fully implemented.
The TEI describes different syntactic solutions for the representation of multiple
hierarchies into the same text (as the use of milestones or the fragmentation of
elements, etc.). These solutions make impossible using standard XML tools (XQuery,
Since the main problem for the representation of multi-structured documents seems
be the syntactic limitations of XML, some solutions are based on models with
alternative syntaxes. However they cannot profit from the galaxy of tools offered
XML. Among those solutions, we can distinguish LMNL [Tennison2002]
and TexMecs [Huitfeldt2003] which are alternatives to XML (formal
models and syntaxes) specifically designed for the representation of overlapping
structures, from propositions that take advantage of the native graph model of RDF
represent multi-structured documents. Among these, the most convincing one certainly
EARMARK [Peroni2009]. The notions of ”location”, ”range”, ”markup
item”, etc. for the modeling of multi-structured documents are precisely defined in
OWL ontology. Moreover, the SPARQL language can be used to query the documents.
The origins of the EARMARK proposal are to be found in two previous
works: annotations graphs [Maeda2002] are used, in the context of
linguistic research, to represent documents as graphs so as to avoid the overlapping
hierarchies problem ; RDFTef [Tummarello2005] can be seen as an
adaptation of annotations graphs to the RDF standard formalism.
At last, XCONCUR [Schonefeld2006] has the same notation as the SGML
CONCUR option and is based on a multi-rooted trees model. Moreover, the XCONCUR-CL
language can define constraints between tree layers.
Finally there are solutions compatible with XML. They either extend the XML
model itself or modify some XML tools (such as XPath and XQuery) to work with
multi-structured documents. As representatives of the first category, the multi-colored
trees [Jagadish2004] and the delay nodes [LeMaitre2006] solutions have very similar models based on an extension
of the core XML model to consider documents as set of XML trees. Unlike
multi-colored trees, delay nodes need no XPath extension in order to
navigate inside the structures.
We now introduce members of the second category
(modification of XML tools to
operate on otherwise standard XML documents). GODDAG [Sperberg-McQueen] (General Ordered Descendant
Directed Acyclic Graph), MSXD [Bruno2006], MonetDB [Alink2006] and MultiX [Chatti2007] are similar
proposals since in each case several trees
are defined over the same textual content by sharing their leaves (textual fragments).
MSXD is the first to introduce the idea of a schema for multi-structured documents.
The MonetDB proposal is an extension of the MonetDB/XQuery XML SGBD with optimized
operators with four new axis steps. These steps have been implemented very
efficiently by using a region index and fast algorithms. MSDM is a lightweight solution
that needs no more than a few specialized XQuery functions. Each one of these four
previous solutions fails at managing change in content or structures since the entire
structures have to be reconstructed every time modifications happen. MuLaX [Hilbert2005] is an adaptation of the previously described SGML CONCUR
option to the XML world. An editor has been developed as an Eclipse plugin for the
creation of MuLaX documents, but no query mechanism has been defined. Finally, feature
structures [Stegmann2009] are a general purpose knowledge representation
format that can be used for XML documents annotated with
heterogeneous tag sets, it was adopted as a standard by the TEI in 2006. Feature
structures have solid mathematical foundations. In particular the two operations of
unification and generalization are well defined and offer very interesting perspectives
for the combination of multi-structured documents. However, there is no specialized
mechanism and no way of managing change in content or structures.
Finally, there is the solution proposed by Desmond Schmidt [Schmidt2009]. Its model is named MVD for Multi-Version document. It is
very similar to the kind of acyclic graph models we saw before (GODDAG, MSDM, etc.).
But this is the only solution to provide an efficient algorithm for updating
multi-structured documents. The author explains that updating reduces to merging a
version into an existing MVD. Thus, he finds inspiration from algorithms conceived
alignment of genetic sequences. Moreover, an heuristic has been developed to manage
block transpositions in a very short time !
Strategy for the construction of multi-structured documents
With the previous solutions, we understand what multi-structured documents are and
how they can be represented, but none of them seem to be interested in the way
structures appear! They must appear in the process of document construction.
In this section we study this process. First of all, we
choose to represent our documents in the RDF formalism but, as it will soon be
explained, we voluntarily impose each structure to be hierarchical (as for the
MultiX, MSXD and GODDAG solutions).
The technical issue of multi-structured documents is the one of overlapping
hierarchies. Moreover, if we do not consider the documents as immutable objects
but as dynamic objects that have to be constructed, overlapping hierarchies
happen at precise moments. Let say a user annotated some citations titles and
quotations he found in his transcription of a manuscript. Later he is told that in
order to precisely align his transcription with the original facsimile he should
annotate each line of the manuscript. So, he starts this new annotation task and
since the ”line” relation did not exist he adds it to the current vocabulary (the
one already containing ”citationTitle”, ”quotation”, etc.). Then, while he has
already marked some lines, a line overlaps with an existing citation title. Our
system (DINAH) will then alert him about an incompatibility between the relations
”citationTitle” and ”line” and will advice him to assign either ”citationTitle” or
”line” to another, and possibly new, vocabulary. In this case, he may assign
”line” to a ”physical structure” vocabulary. Figure 10 is a sample
of the resulting graph.
Finally, our strategy for the management of multi-structured documents promotes the
construction of a multiplicity of structures that should reflect the perspectives
adopted by the users while accessing the documents. Each user has the liberty to
create new vocabularies. Moreover, when overlapping hierarchies are detected users
encouraged to solve the problem by introducing a new vocabulary. In our multi-users
context, this liberty could lead to an uncontrolled growth of vocabularies with lots
of duplicate usages, synonyms, etc. That is why the next section presents a solution
for the dynamic documentation of vocabularies.
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