Balisage Series on Markup Technologies

ISSN 1947-2609

Volume 26: Proceedings of Balisage: The Markup Conference 2021

ISBN-13 978-1-935958-22-2

Balisage: The Markup Conference 2021

Washington, DC

August 2 - 6, 2021

Balisage is a peer-reviewed conference designed to meet the needs of markup theoreticians and practitioners who are pushing the boundaries of the field. It’s all about the markup: how to create it; what it means; hierarchies and overlap; modeling; taxonomies; transformation; query, searching, and retrieval; presentation and accessibility; making systems that make markup dance (or dance faster to a different tune in a smaller space) — in short, changing the world and the web through the power of markup.

Topics discussed in papers on the 2021 program include: programming with XSLT and CSS, modeling text as graphs and trees, encoding semantic relationships, implementing useful string libraries in XQuery and XSLT, a new data structure for Unicode strings in processors, and yet another XML query language. Also discussed will be change tracking in office documents; the importance (or not) of order in XML (or JSON); semantics on the web; printing with XML and CSS; client-side XSLT for validation and security; how to leverage legacy systems and legacy documents, and legacy encodings; using non-XML structural markup in XML systems; refactoring large XSLT systems; and structure constraints in XForms.


Gold Sponsors

Docugami is a Seattle-area document engineering startup that transforms how businesses create and manage documents for greater productivity, compliance, and insight using breakthrough artificial intelligence. Founded in March 2018 by former senior engineering leaders from Microsoft, Docugami harnesses a wide range of artificial intelligence techniques, including natural language processing, image recognition, declarative markup, and other approaches, to radically improve how documents enhance business processes, rather than slowing them down with tedious manual labor and disconnected data.

Evolved Binary was established in 2014 and specialises in structured information storage and retrieval. Our flagship product is FusionDB, a modern multi-model NoSQL database with a strong document storage pedigree. As well as FusionDB, we also provide Development and Consultancy services to help your organisation with its complex information storage, retrieval, and transformation. We are experts in Document, Graph, Relational, and Key/Value technologies. As an organisation, we challenge ourselves by engaging in research activities to push the boundaries of what is possible today. Our customers include the world’s largest social media companies, national archives, and domain expert publishers.

Silver Sponsors

Antenna House, Inc. was founded in August of 1984 in Tokyo, Japan, as a software company, focused on data usability. Antenna House, Inc. has led the data conversion sector in Japan since that time. The company currently operates out of four international locations and welcomes new partners from around the globe. For information on the full line of Antenna House XML Products, visit


Oxygen XML Editor

<oXygen/> XML Editor is a cross-platform application available on all the major operating systems (Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris), either standalone or as an Eclipse plugin. Download a trial version from

le-tex publishing services GmbH

le-tex publishing services was founded in 1999 in Leipzig (“L.E.”) with a focus on scientific typesetting (“TeX”). Over the years, other services such as production editing, copy editing, data conversion, and XML consultancy have been added. Customers include Springer Nature, Wiley, DIN, C.H.Beck, and Suhrkamp. le-tex is an advocate of open standards and open source software, as demonstrated by the conversion and validation framework that is based on XProc, XSLT, Relax NG, and Schematron. It converts from/to docx, IDML, EPUB, TEI, DocBook, JATS, HTML, and other formats; and it is released under a liberal BSD license.



There is nothing so practical as a good theory