Applying intertextual semantics to Cyberjustice

Many reality checks for the price of one

Yves Marcoux

Professeur agrégé

Université de Montréal

Copyright © 2015 by the author. Used with permission.

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Applying intertextual semantics to Cyberjustice

Many reality checks for the price of one

Balisage: The Markup Conference 2015
August 11 - 14, 2015


General setting, origin, goals

The Cyberjustice Laboratory in the Faculty of Law at Université de Montréal is an important infrastructure (around 5,8M$ CAD) aimed at exploring ways to leverage technologies for increasing access to justice and improving its various processes. The main research project (SSHRC GTRC grant of around 2,5M$ CAD) is called Rethinking Processual Law: Towards Cyberjustice. The project we report on in this article is a sub-project taking place within the activities of Working Group 3 : New Procedural Models, and is entitled Applying Intertextual Semantics to Cyberjustice.

The idea of that project came out of a discussion between the principal investigator of Towards Cyberjustice, Professor Karim Benyekhlef at the Faculty of Law, and the author, in early 2012. It was concluded that the goals and philosophy of Intertextual Semantics (IS; Marcoux 2006, Marcoux & Rizkallah 2007a, Marcoux & Rizkallah 2009) were totally in line with the general objectives of Cyberjustice, both in terms of access to justice and in terms of allowing individuals to conduct themselves as much as possible of their activities related to justice. It was agreed that a first step would be to simply apply the IS modeling method to a chosen legal document type, and see what would come out of it. Such an endeavor would simultaneously serve as a reality check for IS and was expected to prompt a number of improvements to the then existing IS framework and platform.

After considering of couple of possibilities, André Saintonge, technical lead of the laboratory, suggested working on the Agreement as to the conduct of the proceedings (EDI for short, after the French name Entente sur le déroulement de l’instance), a document that the parties have to jointly produce and submit to a judge at the beginning of a case in the Province de Québec (Canada). There were two (related) reasons for this suggestion: (1) it appeared that the preparation of that document by lawyers was time-consuming and that the judges found it generally difficult to consult; (2) there had already been two attempts at PDFying that document type. For various reasons (among which the limitation in scope of applicability), none of these PDF versions had had any level of success. It appeared clear that what was needed was an online application for the joint preparation of the document by the parties. The refined goals of the sub-project thus became to (1) verify whether the availability of a semantic model of a document type (more precisely, a IS model of the EDI) would impact on (and hopefully help) the development of an application for the collaborative authoring of such documents, and (2) prompt improvements to the IS framework and platform.

What was done, current status, outcomes

Océane Chotard, M.S.I., was hired as a research assistant mid 2012 and started the IS modeling process. A first complete model hypothesis was ready for validation with a domain expert by late Summer and a first interview (which eventually turned out to be the only one) took place on September 5th. Other interviews were planned, but had to be canceled for personal reasons by the domain expert. Still, the results of the interview and of further discussions with other domain experts that took place during the Fall were enough to conclude that (1) the right answers to modeling issues depended on the target community envisaged (judges, lawyers, or both) and or their needs, that (2) nobody had realized the dependency yet, and thus that (3) nobody could tell us what the target community of the envisaged application was nor what their needs were.

A strategic meeting was held on October 3rd during which the target community was decided to be lawyers, and the necessity to conduct a needs analysis with them was clearly identified. Océane was willing to do that work, but had to leave the project for administrative and personal reasons.

Since no replacement for Océane was found until Spring 2014, and nobody else from the IS team was available in the meantime, some subsequent steps were carried out in the Cyberjustice Laboratory without the IS point of view (in particular, without an IS model of the EDI). A needs analysis was conducted with lawyers (for which, unfortunately, no report is available) and a classical functional analysis (with partial interface and database design) was performed by a computer science student in late 2013. As of this writing, no further development of the application has taken place or is planned.

For the original work plan to be followed, a more thorough needs analysis would have had to be carried out by the IS team, and the iterative modeling process continued and completed. Only then would application development have been undertaken. At that time, nobody from the IS team was available, so it was decided that modeling should be pursued and completed in a light way, with the goal of bringing it to a graceful conclusion.

In May 2014, Catherine Saint-Arnaud-Babin, M.S.I., was hired as a research assistant to do that. We decided the best approach was to complete the IS model by settling all the pending questions based on the best available evidence, or failing evidence, on the most reasonable assumptions. The material available comprised the report of the interview conducted in 2012 and the output of the functional analysis of 2013 (which turned out to be of little help). When this material did not allow settling a pending question, Catherine and the author jointly settled it by discussing what the reasonable assumptions might be. The model was completed in November 2014.

The ideal scenario would have been for the IS team to perform a needs analysis with the lawyers, iteratively elaborate the IS model, then actively take part in the design and development of the application, in order to demonstrate how the IS modeling might integrate into the whole cycle of user experience design. That scenario did not take place and thus, no definite answer was obtained as to whether IS can directly help in the development of applications. In that sense, the first goal of the project was not fully attained. As a reality check for IS, however, the project was a great success, and the second goal can be said to have been fully reached. Indeed, many improvements to the IS framework and platform have been not only prompted by the project, but actually implemented in the course of the project. This is mainly what we report on in this article.

Structure of the article

A summary of IS is presented in section “IS in a nutshell”, both the conceptual framework and the platform as it existed in 2009.

In section “Reality check one: modeling for a client”, we share reflections on how modeling for a client influences the desirable features of an IS platform. Then, in section “Extensions to IS”, we describe what extensions were implemented to address those needs.

In section “Reality check two: integration in a IT project”, we ponder on how the need to integrate into a IT (Information Technology) project impacts on the appropriate method to perform IS modeling of a document type. In particular, we present some unforeseen difficulties in interacting with various stakeholders in the project, how we addressed them, and what lessons we learned in the process.

Finally, in section “Conclusion”, we make some concluding remarks, in which we muse on considering the reality-check relationships in the opposite direction: what might the confrontation with IS of Cyberjustice and IT reveal about Cyberjustice and IT themselves, rather than about IS?

IS in a nutshell

The conceptual framework

This summary of IS is adapted from Marcoux & Rizkallah 2008 and Marcoux et al. 2009. The reader is referred to Marcoux 2006, Marcoux & Rizkallah 2009, or Marcoux 2014 for more details.

Intertextual Semantics (IS) is first and foremost a conceptual framework aimed at giving semantics to populated data structures, most importantly XML documents. The domain of the semantics as a function, i.e., the set of objects to which a meaning is given, is a set of data structures with content, for example, XML documents. The most unusual aspect of IS is that the range of the semantics as a function, i.e., the set of values that constitute the possible meanings of the populated data structures, is natural language (NL), rather than an artificial formal language such as logic. Thus, IS assigns a meaning (i.e., a semantics) to populated data structures, a meaning which is expressed in natural language (NL).

In the IS view, the creators of the data structure (modelers) associate NL segments and composition rules to the various parts of the structure. These allow the meaning (in NL) of a given instance of the structure to be generated automatically and, for example, presented to a human user (author, reader, etc.). The goal of IS is to facilitate a common understanding of the instance among the various human persons interacting with it throughout its entire life-cycle, including the persons who create the structure (the modelers), the persons who populate the instance (the authors), and the persons who consult it (the readers). So far, only very weak composition rules have been explored, and it is extremely important that these be weak, because too powerful mechanisms would “hide under the carpet” inherent interpretation complications which IS, in contrast, seeks to uncover.

In the realm of XML documents, the NL segments are specified by the modelers in a IS Specification (ISS) for the tag-set. In the current state of the IS framework, a ISS takes the form of a table giving, for each element type two NL segments: a “text-before” segment and a “text-after” segment (generically called “peritexts”). Attributes are handled by the possibility of including in the peritexts “guarded segments,” segments guarded by an attribute name, that are only included if the corresponding attribute is specified on the element, and that can refer to the attribute value. “Local” elements (in the sense of W3C schemas) are partly supported, in that different peritexts can be assigned depending on the ancestors of the element. The IS generation process is similar to styling the document with the peritexts, concatenating peritexts and element content as the document tree is traversed depth-first. The IS, or IS-meaning, or reference interpretation, of the document is the resulting character string. It is not necessarily linguistically correct, but is what we call quasi-NL.

Modeler- and author-contributed segments are assumed to be distinguishable from each other (for example, they could be of different colors). Modeler-contributed segments can contain some non-graphic characters (e.g., paragraph breaks) and the output of the semantic function as a whole can contain hyperlinks, in the form of URIs delimited by agreed-upon modeler-contributed markers, for example [square brackets].

IS was introduced in Marcoux 2006, where it was considered only from the perspective of modeler-author communication, and in the context of valid structured documents (e.g., XML). In Marcoux & Rizkallah 2007b, it was applied to a more classical database-like structure, again with only the facilitation of modeler-author communication in mind.

IS has similarities with various mechanisms aimed at presenting markup in more or less explicit or explicated forms. However, it is important to stress that the preoccupations of IS are not at the presentational level, but really at the semantic level. The “presentation” obtained through the IS mechanism is intended to define the meaning of a document. In the other approaches we are aware of, the presentation (if successful) accurately represents the meaning of a document, but that meaning is defined elsewhere. The idea of using text-related techniques to improve systems design, though not widespread, is by no means exclusive to IS. Also, several approaches have been proposed in the past to provide semantics to structured documents. The reader is referred to Marcoux 2006 and Marcoux et al. 2009 for pointers to relevant related work.

The platform as of 2009

An operational platform capable of actually generating the IS-meaning of a document from its XML source and a ISS was developed in 2009 (Marcoux 2009). It is available, with examples, at <> (enriched versions, including the ones discussed in this paper, are located in the beta-version… sub-folders, the latest one being always in beta-version/). It consists mainly in a XSLT 1.0 stylesheet which, when linked to an XML document, locates the applicable ISS and produces an HTML output whose rendering in a browser represents the IS-meaning of the document.

While a discussion of the conceptual framework can remain vague on details such as how to link a particular ISS to an XML document, the actual language in which ISSs are written, what exactly is allowed within peritexts, and to which extent the ISS is allowed to control the presentation of the IS-meaning, an operational platform presupposes specific choices for all practical aspects of the framework.

The 2009 platform can be said to be purist with regards to the text-only nature of IS. The IS-meaning of any document is 100% text. Peritexts and document content are presented differently (as the framework says they should), but the modeler (who writes the peritexts) has no way whatsoever of controlling the presentation of neither the peritexts nor the document content. Indentation is used, but it is generated automatically using a heuristics based on XML element embedding.

Figure 1 shows a typical display of IS-meaning with the 2009 platform. Text with a colored background is document content (text content or attribute value), everything else is peritext.

Figure 1

image ../../../vol15/graphics/Marcoux01/Marcoux01-001.png

Typical display with the 2009 platform.

Attributes are handled by allowing within peritexts marked sections of the form @attName[…@…]. Those sections are included in the output only if the named attribute is present in the XML instance. There must be exactly one @ in the text between the square brackets in the marked section, and that @ is replaced in the output by the value of the attribute. The {{…}} delimiters can be used within peritexts to identify URIs, which are then converted to clickable hyperlinks in the HTML output.

Figure 2 shows a typical display with a ISS using attributes and hyperlinks.

Figure 2

image ../../../vol15/graphics/Marcoux01/Marcoux01-002.png

Typical display with attributes and hyperlinks.

The very simple XML vocabulary with which ISSs are written can easily be inferred by looking at the following figures:

Figure 3

XML source of example in Figure 1.

Figure 4

XML source of example in Figure 2.

Figure 5

File story.iss.xml: ISS used for both Figure 1 and Figure 2.

Here are some explanations about those figures:

  • The file ISG.xsl (not given here) is the generic XSLT 1.0 stylesheet that realizes the IS-meaning generation. The convention used by this stylesheet to retrieve the ISS is to use the file named TLgenID.iss.xml in the same directory as the XML document, where TLgenID is the generic ID of the document’s top level element.

  • In the ISS, a text-before and a text-after are grouped together in a rule element. The paths attribute of a rule element gives one or more paths, space-delimited, to which the text-before and text-after (given by likewise-named attributes) apply. Those paths are given in a restricted XPath-like syntax, each path consisting in an element-type name, with or without partial or complete ancestral line.

    For example, a rule with paths="/doc/sec appendix/subsec proc" would apply to sec elements that are children of the doc top-level element, as well as to subsec elements that are children of appendix elements, and to all proc elements.

    If more than one rule could apply to an element, the first one, in ISS document order, is chosen.

Figure 3

<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="ISG.xsl" ?>
<story author="Bram Stocker">
  <para><person>Dracula</person> went to France. There, he met

XML source of example in Figure 1.

Figure 4

<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="ISG.xsl" ?>
<story author="Bram Stocker" xmlns="">
    <person key="Bluebeard">Barbe-Bleue</person> went to
    <place key="Transylvania">Transylvania</place>. There, he met
  <para>He did not like <person>Dracula</person>. So he decided
    to go back to <place>France</place>.</para>

XML source of example in Figure 2.

Figure 5

<iss xmlns="">

  <rule paths="story" text-before="This document tells a tiny story.@xmlns[ The
    document belongs to the XML namespace "@" (if you are not
    familiar with XML namespaces, you can read about them at
    {{}}).]@author[ The author of this story is
    @.]" text-after="End of the tiny story."/>

  <rule paths="para" text-before="A bit of the story: " text-after=""/>

  <rule paths="person" text-before="THE PERSON NAMED " text-after="
    @key[{{}} ]"/>

  <rule paths="place" text-before="THE PLACE NAMED " text-after="
    @key[{{}} ]"/>

File story.iss.xml: ISS used for both Figure 1 and Figure 2.

Reality check one: modeling for a client

The need for communicating a model hypothesis

The project involved eliciting knowledge and understanding of the document type and its various uses from domain experts who were entirely unfamiliar with data or information modeling or XML. In particular, it was necessary to present to these people—and validate with them—the successive modeling hypotheses established by the modeler.

It quickly became clear that the rudimentary 2009 platform was not well suited to communicating a model hypothesis to domain experts. Namely, the textual purism of the plaftorm, which made it impossible for the modeler to control the presentation of the IS-meaning of a document, was too limitative. It was rapidly felt that more freedom for the modeler to control the presentation of the output of the IS-generation was required. More specifically:

  • A more precise control of indentation and linebreaks.

  • Possibility of emphasizing and otherwise styling a segment of text.

  • Better support for preparing and using printed copies of the IS-meaning of a document, for offline study by the domain experts.

How IS was extended to address those needs is described in section “Presentation improvements”.

Another point is that, in validating a modeling hypothesis with a domain expert, the question arises of choosing sample documents to present the various peritexts in the IS specification. Because of possible mutually exclusive choices in the model (which all but the most simplistic of models will contain), a single valid document cannot trigger all the rules of the IS specification. Thus, in order to validate all peritexts, we must either resort to an invalid document, or to multiple documents. The significance of this question, especially for long documents, such as the one we were dealing with, had eluded us and came as a bit of a surprise in the preparation of the first interview.

How we dealt with this question is discussed in section “Extensions to the modeling method”.

The models they are a-changin’

Because modeling for a client is inherently an iterative process, the model hypothesis is not only expected to change regularly, but almost certain to do so. In the process, and because a domain expert is not constantly available for discussion, it is only natural that questions will arise that must remain pending for a while, until they can be discussed with domain experts, and eventually settled by a decision.

We felt such steps in the elaboration of model hypotheses should be documented right in the IS model being developed. A natural way to include such documentation is in the form of rationale management notes (RMNs), that the modeler can attach to a peritext, although they are not part of the peritext.

We identified five types of such notes:

Modeling questions still pending

Questions that the modeler intends to discuss with domain experts.

Modeling decisions

Decisions taken after a discussion (usually with domain experts). Often, a pending question, once settled, will become a decision. As a good practice, all decisions should be timestamped and the person(s) involved in the discussion identified.

Tips for developers

Information that is likely to be useful to developers of envisaged applications. For example, description of relevant extra validations that XML DTD- or schema-validation cannot perform.

Information for end-users

Information that developers should make sure is available to the end-users of envisaged applications. For example, guidelines for establishing or interpreting the content of an element (over and above validation rules).

Notes for the modelers themselves

Any information that the modelers deem worthy of inclusion in the model for its documentation value. In this project, these notes were used as reminders of the content models of the various elements. The need for such notes was felt because the actual content models were in a DTD separate form the ISS .

Rationale Management Notes (RMNs) will be further discussed in section “Rationale management notes”

Extensions to IS

The extensions done fall into three categories: (1) enrichment of the visual rendering of interpreted documents (display and print); (2) inclusion of the rationale management mechanism discussed earlier; and (3) extensions to the modeling method. In the course of these extensions, the syntax of the peritexts was changed from the ad hoc micro-format syntax of 2009 to an XML syntax, which made the inclusion of rationale management notes simpler, and rendered the parsing and validation of peritexts easier.

In this new XML syntax, peritexts were no longer text-only, but could contain subelements; thus, they had to be made into subelements of the rule element, named text-before and text-after, rather than attributes of rule.

Presentation improvements

In response to the challenges posed by modeling for a client, a number of extensions and improvements to the presentation capabilities of IS were introduced:

  • The possibility of including <br/> and <span/> elements in peritexts was added, with the same semantics as in HTML. Both elements accept the class and style attributes, that are simply passed on to the HTML output. Five predefined classes, em and em2 to em5, are provided for various forms of emphasis.

  • A new display attribute was added to the rule element, with possible values of inline, content-inline, and block, allowing control of how an element is to be displayed. The indentation heuristics has been removed, and indentation is solely controlled by XML embedding. The new display attribute turns out to allow sufficient control over paragraph layout and indentation.

  • Numbering of repeatable elements is possible using the <num/> element, which can be inserted anywhere in a peritext, and is resolved to the sequence number of the element among its siblings with the same generic ID, followed by a superscript letter e.

  • A kind of catch-all method for controlling presentation is also possible: it is to link the XML document not directly to the generic stylesheet ISG.xsl, but rather to a model-specific stylesheet that provides any required idiosyncratic presentation then imports ISG.xsl. This method was primarily used in the process of gradually adding the above capabilities to the platform, but eventually became unnecessary as the new features became available. It is currently deprecated.

  • It is possible to add to the HTML output (under the control of a stylesheet paramater) the CSS apparatus necessary to number paragraphs of the output. These numbers can serve as orientation landmarks either in the course of an interview or when sample interpreted documents are printed for offline consultation.

Figure 6 shows a typical display with paragraph numbering, and also illustrates some other presentation-control capabilities.

Figure 6

image ../../../vol15/graphics/Marcoux01/Marcoux01-003.png

Typical display with paragraph numbering and other presentation-control features.

Rationale management notes

To implement a mechanism of Rationale Management Notes (RMNs) satisfactory with respect to the requirements expressed in section “The models they are a-changin’”, we decided that RMNs should congnitively act as post-it’s placed at arbitrary points in peritexts. Thus, they would be visible, but not interfere with the flow of the peritexts.

For this purpose, the following icons were chosen, corresponding to the five types of RMNs, in the order presented in section “The models they are a-changin’”:

image ../../../vol15/graphics/Marcoux01/Marcoux01-004.png

At the point where a RMN is present in a peritext, only the icon corresponding to its type will appear, thereby not interrupting the flow of text. The content of the RMN will be displayed either as a tool-tip or in a side-box, under the control of a stylesheet parameter. When side-box display is asked for, the RMN icons are numbered in the peritexts, and the same numbers identify the side-boxes. Of course, only side-box display is appropriate for printing.

It is also possible, under stylesheet parameter control, to specify that some types of RMNs are simply to be ignored.

Figure 6 and Figure 7 show typical displays with RMNs in side-boxes.

Figure 7

image ../../../vol15/graphics/Marcoux01/Marcoux01-005.png

Typical display with RMNs in side-boxes.

Extensions to the modeling method

The discussion around the first example in Marcoux 2006 suggests a modeling method which forms the basis of the one used in this project: starting with the prose of representative samples of the document type, the modeler identifies the variable parts (which correspond to instance-specific content), and the fixed parts (which correspond to peritexts), then determines the content models: the repeatability and optionality of each part, as well as points of choice between possible parts. The actual XML names in the model (generic IDs, attribute names, etc.) are derived from the peritexts elaborated.

When working for a client, this whole method has to be embedded in a higher-level iterative process by which successive model hypotheses are presented to domain experts and criticized and validated by them. A protocol for conducting interviews with domain experts was elaborated to make sure they were performed efficiently.

A step that had to be added prior to the interviews is the preparation of the fictional documents presented to the domain expert. As explained in section “The need for communicating a model hypothesis”, the documents have to be such that they will cause each rule to be fired at least once, and thus, each peritext is viewed at least once by the domain expert. Our choice here was to use only valid documents, because we deemed that dealing with invalid (and thus, semantically inconsistent) documents would be too confusing for the interviewee. We used a first big document covering as many rules as possible, and with at least two occurrences of repeatable blocks, then one or two much smaller documents covering the remaining rules.

It was necessary to resort to fictional documents because real sample documents contained sensitive data, and also because it would have taken too many real documents to trigger all the rules in the ISS.

Reality check two: integration in a IT project

Thinking in terms of document meaning

A point we had not foreseen was the difficulty of both the domain and computer (IT) experts to think in terms of what the documents meant. This difficulty was observed on two different levels: (1) difficulty thinking of information in terms of documents and (2) difficulty expressing needs and wishes otherwise than at the interface-widget level. The first level (difficulty with the document approach) was all the more surprising that the whole endeavor consisted in modeling a document type.

Thinking in terms of documents per se was not too hard for domain experts; what was more challenging was to separate the ISs of the sample documents presented to them from what an actual real-life display would look like. However, we found that after due explanations were given, they were fairly at ease with the idea. However, they continued expressing needs and wishes in interface-widget parlance. This is not a big problem, though, since such expressions of needs are easy to translate into model features.

It was a different story with computer experts. They never quite saw any interest in viewing the output of the envisaged application as documents instead of database fields. They never either quite understood our interest in the meaning of elements. We venture to say they were simply making a very common assumption about database fields: a field name + a data type is all we need to understand the meaning of a field.

Dealing with fuzziness and ambiguity

One particular point which was hard to grasp for computer (IT) experts is that in trying to understand the semantics of data, we neither aimed nor hoped to rule out all ambiguity or fuzziness from the application domain. The difficulty was probably exacerbated by the traditional database view of things, in which data entering any kind of persistent container is assumed (sometimes erroneously) to have clear and unambiguous semantics. Document modeling, we believe, differs strongly from this view in that it can easily accommodate varying degrees of precision and/or ambiguity, even simultaneously within a single model, mainly by virtue of the presence of mixed content and choice constructors in content model formalisms.

We had to regularly reiterate the fact that we were not trying to eliminate ambiguity or fuzziness, but only sought to detect them in order to model them. Our degree of success in conveying this idea was probably not very high.


As already mentioned in section “What was done, current status, outcomes”, the goal of the project which was to verify whether the availability of a semantic model of a document type (more precisely, a IS model) would impact on (and hopefully help) the development of an application for the collaborative authoring of such documents was only partly attained, for the following reasons:

  • The iterative IS modeling of the document type (the EDI) in consultation with domain experts was not entirely completed.

  • A collaborative authoring application was not fully developed.

  • The few steps that were taken towards the development of a collaborative authoring application were not performed with the IS view in mind.

In hindsight, we think the document type might have been too complex for the kind of experiment we were seeking. In fact, in another sub-project of Towards Cyberjustice currently underway, we are working with a rather simpler document type.

With respect to its second goal (serving as a reality check for IS), however, the project can be considered a great success. The better part of this article is a description of the challenges of applying IS in the setting of Cyberjustice, and of how these challenges prompted extensions and improvements to the IS framework and plaftorm.

In conclusion, we would like to consider the reality check relationships in the opposite direction. The meeting of IS with Cyberjustice and IT in general has been a reality check for IS; has it been one also for Cyberjustice and IT?

Reality check for Cyberjustice

One important lesson we learned from the experience is that fuzziness is an essential part of the world of law, but that at the same time, people who leverage that fuzziness are sometimes reluctant to make it clear that fuzziness not only exists, but is in fact intentional. IS represents a bit of a clash with that attitude because, although fuzziness and ambiguity are easily accounted for, their sheer existence must be recognized and disclosed to the modeler during the modeling process.

Fully measuring the importance of fuzziness and ambiguity in their practice and documents might have come as a reality check to some of the law people involved in the project.

Reality check for IT

To us, the confrontation we observed of IT with the IS approach bears signs of questionable trends in IT. For example, the difficulty for IT people of seeing value in the document approach may be a sign that static artefacts are currently undervalued in IT, compared to dynamic ones such as services. But important aspects of society are based on (at least relatively) static, stable artefacts (laws, contracts, books, works of art, etc.) and these aspects should not be neglected by IT. However, one must be cautious in that kind of generalization; after all, our view of IT in the project was extremely limited and specific.

There is nevertheless one thing about IT that the project brought out: in spite of all the methodological approaches in vogue, there is always a risk of embarking on a project without asking all the relevant questions. Recall from section “What was done, current status, outcomes” that at the outset, nobody could tell what the target community of the envisaged application was nor what their needs were, despite the fact that two attempts at producing PDF versions had already taken place.

By raising basic questions about the meaning of a document type (the EDI), IS succeeded in uncovering the fact that a fundamental question about the idea of developing an authoring application for that document type had never been asked. This, to us, is a perfect illustration of the kind of effect IS can have on modeling projects, and in general, on application development projects: making sure fundamental questions do not go unasked for too long.


This work was supported by a SSHRC grant as part of the Towards Cyberjustice GTRC, whose principal investigator is Professor Karim Benyekhlef, Faculty of Law, Université de Montréal.

We wish to thank Océane Chotard, M.S.I., who painstakingly familiarized herself with the IS framework, suggested many improvements to the platform, and ever so patiently dealt with the numerous stakeholders of the project. We are also grateful to Catherine Saint-Arnaud-Babin, M.S.I., who took over Océane’s work and brought it to a graceful conclusion, essentially on her own. We cheerfully thank Élias Rizkallah, a significant contributor to the development of IS, who supervised part of the work done in the first phase of this project. Karim Benyekhlef, Valentin Callipel, Catherine Piché, Nicolas Vermeys, and André Saintonge of the Cyberjustice laboratory, are all to be warmly thanked for their faith and engagement in the project.


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Author's keywords for this paper: Intertextual semantics; XML modeling; Legal documents