How to cite this paper

Piez, Wendell. “Uphill to XML with XSLT, XProc … and HTML.” Presented at Up-Translation and Up-Transformation: Tasks, Challenges, and Solutions, Washington, DC, July 31, 2017. In Proceedings of Up-Translation and Up-Transformation: Tasks, Challenges, and Solutions. Balisage Series on Markup Technologies, vol. 20 (2017).

Up-Translation and Up-Transformation: Tasks, Challenges, and Solutions
July 31, 2017

Balisage Paper: Uphill to XML with XSLT, XProc … and HTML

Wendell Piez

Wendell Piez is an independent consultant specializing in XML and XSLT, based in Rockville MD.

Copyright © 2017 by the author.


HTML is a widely familiar vernacular for ad-hoc representation of documents, and can be useful as a staging ground for decomposing and breaking down the more complex operations in uphill data transformation. HTML, syntactically well-formed and maintained within XML pipelines with well-defined interfaces, can usefully join XSLT and XProc to provide for a complete up-conversion or data-enhancement pipeline – especially when the ultimate target is semantically richer than HTML. In a project based on this approach, lessons learned include: “Many steps may be easier than one”; “If it doesn't work, try it the other way around”; and “Validation is in the eye of the beholder”.

Table of Contents

Upconversion is (really not!) difficult
Why convert to/from HTML?
What does it mean, 'carrier format'?
Four uses for data formats
History of these projects
Requirements of agility
Faking it with HTML
What makes HTML weirdly capable for this
HTML as liminal zone
HTML Typescript
Halfway there is not nowhere
Pipelines and processing
Pipelines, meta-pipelines, pipelines of pipelines
Murky worlds
Higher level logics
The last mile problem
The case against HTML on the way up hill

Upconversion is (really not!) difficult

Figure 1

Eadwine at his desk (Wikimedia Commons)

  • Pulling meaning out of information may involve interpretation, enrichment, reduction, refactoring

  • This is endless!

  • We begin by acknowledging we will never be finished

    • … Dealing with upconversion in general ...

    • … While we may be finished with a particular conversion problem

Why convert to/from HTML?

Figure 2

Matterhorn (Wikimedia Commons)

  • Because it's there

  • Making peace with HTML as a carrier format

What does it mean, 'carrier format'?

Figure 3

Canal dredging equipment, schematic (Wikimedia Commons)

  • Especially to be distinguished from "hub format"

  • "Carrier" format may help get data in/out

  • Represents an expedient means

    Facing a specific interface (internal or external)

Four uses for data formats

Figure 4

Distinguishing among these four different uses for a data format, may be helpful.

  • Application format

  • System hub format

    (Abstracted from processes; generalized)

  • Control format

    (Further generalized and externalized)

  • Carrier format

    (Commonly a form of an application or hub format, i.e. an application of an application)



A data format may provide for functionalities in processing, either directly or via indirect bindings or programming. "Display on the web" broadly is an application of HTML. But HTML archived for long-term storage (and hence tomorrow's processor) is not aiming (or not aiming only) at this use.

The great attraction of electronic data formats is in their fungibility, which can permit them (in principle and often actually) to be represented and re-represented in and for other applications. Thus even hard-core "application profile" formats such as SVG or XSL FO (formatting objects), must maintain a balance between supported functionalities, and abstract specifications.


The design, specification, application and use of a hub format is different from an application format. In theory and practice, hub formats have enabled data reuse and re-publication by providing for "downhill conversion" into one or more application formats.

The entire reason we conceive of "uphill conversion" at all is because we envision a hub format in which encoded information is "high value" – both "clean" and "dense", meaning both more expressive and more efficient, parsimonious, integral and communicative. If such a format is identified with an application, then so must our data be. When this becomes a problem (as it inevitably does sooner or later), the way to insulate and protect data from "application rot", likewise, is to take care that the representations (in and of its encoding) be abstracted away from application requirements. A hub format provides a safe home, as it were.

Historically, the broadly descriptive formats including TEI, JATS, DITA and Docbook were all developed to serve this role, in information systems of various sizes and scales of complexity.

But plenty of systems exist that have their own private hub format of one form or another. Indeed, XML itself is only one of many ways a hub format can be defined and managed.


However, just because we have a hub format, doesn't mean we have to use it for every purpose: on the contrary, the opposite must necessarily be the case. Just as we expect to translate data "out of" or "down from" our hub into application formats, we might suppose that data on the way "in" or "up into", might require something that doesn't impose (or, at any one stage, doesn't yet impose) all the rigors of the hub.

Similarly we may have formats or data encoding regimens that serve for nothing but a communicative purpose (for example, between two systems that have their own hub format). That's a carrier format.

It isn't difficult to produce an artificial carrier format or indeed to adapt a hub format (typically by relaxing it) to this purpose. It is also possible (and frequently easier) to adapt something.

Note that, somewhat confusing, someone's carrier format, may be someone else's application format. That is, what is a carrier for you (internally) becomes for them, an interface that they have to target (externally).

Thus it's typical to try and cheat, using an application format as a carrier format and vice versa. That is what we are doing here.


Finally, it should be noted that actual control over a data set may be exerted, even without a fully specified hub format – inasmuch as control mechanisms may take other forms than the classic constraints over markup languages (which focuses validation on element type names, containment as represented syntactically, and attribute flags. Sometimes the hub format or essential aspects or elements of the hub are better regarded as a projections of other, further abstracted models or taxonomies.

It is frequently difficult, when considering a system especially that has grown over time, to determine exactly where the control points actually are. Especially since where they are actually controlled (operationally) and where they are nominally dictated, are often two different things. Documentation, it is sad to say, is more often than not out of date.

These entanglements are all reasons, it may be, not to rely on a hub format to do every job in the world. Imposing a requirement that a process artifact (even a temporary one) conform to a hub format (designed for another purpose) may be an arbitrary imposition as often as it's a neat trick. Better to keep the hub format for the good data, the controls in place – and with the data that is not so good or not yet so good, don't make such demands.

History of these projects

Figure 5

TEI transcription of translated tract

Figure 6

  • Started with editorial work from plain text sources

    • Gustav Fechner (Life After Death: a Manual)

      Aiming for "functional facsimile" of 1904 print edition

    • Chas. Woodbury (Talks with Emerson, 1890, with new annotations)

    • Demonstrated that XSLT pipelines are capable

      • In XSLT: 2.0 grouping, temporary trees/pipelining, regular expressions ...

      • Specification of requirements becomes the hard part not implementation

  • Moved on to HTML sources (mainly because they are widely available)

    • Can save work as compared to plain text (piggybacking on earlier editors)

    • Still present formidable obstacles

    • See, e.g., BITSLab examples

  • More recently, XSweet with Coko Foundation

    Developing pipelines producing HTML from Word docx.

    For example, Epigram Microphone by Mark Scott

Requirements of agility

Figure 7

What you get asking for "agility". HMKC Spring 2007 Agility Trial: photo author Ron Armstrong from Helena, MT, USA. Wikimedia Commons.

  • Agility implies less time spent up front in design

    (We improve our design in use, rather than stall ourselves designing it)

    And it's a huge plus if developers already know the language we propose to use!

  • Maybe we don't have a hub format yet (much less a control infrastructure)

  • We still want to move data across the system!

  • HTML appears to be a reasonable way to do this

    • Remains relatively transparent throughout

    • We can nail things down later

  • Question of the moment (say): if docx is my source, and BITS is my target, is HTML a reasonable way station?

    (Epigram Microphone)

Faking it with HTML

Figure 8

Some XHTML on the way to BITS

  • Actually, it's still XML

    • Well-formed

    • Even if not formally (valid as) XHTML

  • So our XML toolkit can still manage

  • In other words - going with wf/HTML has implications in detail

    (viz: roles of @class and @style)

    But it's not fundamentally different from any other tree-shaped XML-based format

What makes HTML weirdly capable for this

Figure 9

More cute animals courtesy of Public Domain Pictures.

  • HTML can be perfectly nutritious

    May be flat (soupy or sloppy): any structure is a bonus

    i.e., because HTML does not enforce structure, it can tolerate any or no structure

  • Yet a rough distinction between wrappers, blocks and inlines can be observed

    (The stuff of any sort of content objects)

    Everything comes down to div, p, and span, with a little synonymy e.g. b and i elements

    Plus, shifts in register can be more important than the registers themselves

  • Semantic labels can (and frequently are) hidden away in (overloaded) @class

  • We also have a wide-open garage door escape hatch for presentation info: CSS

HTML as liminal zone

Figure 10

The Fight Between Carnival and Lent, Pieter Bruegel, 1559. Wikimedia Commons

  • HTML is in between

    • The opaque chaos of uncontrolled data sources

      (Wherein information is present, but latent)

    • And the transparent order of highly controlled data resources

      (Let's say, the targets of an uphill data conversion)

    On our way from here to there

    We can express (only) what we know, when we know it

    As we go, we can enrich semantics step by step

    Enriching description, enunciating regularity, reducing noise

  • HTML did not start this way – but it has evolved in the direction of this capability

    (HTML is a hub format that was broken on the wheels of its applications.)

HTML Typescript

Figure 11

Sir James Cantlie (1851-1926), Lecture on Hong Kong. Typescript with holograph corrections, etc., London, 1898. Page 19: a more or less random typescript page from Wikimedia Commons

  • HTML can present rough-but-capable representation of "what an author wrote"

    Analogous to a "typescript" in print-oriented production

    Represents a work in progress, not a finished work

    Its lack of (final) production values is part of the point

  • Offers a site of analysis, negotiation and preparation for the next stage of production

    By analogy - a downstream consumer is apt to be happier to consume HTML than most any other format even a "better" one ...

    Cf Adam Hyde,

Halfway there is not nowhere

Figure 12

Sulphur Mountain Resort (interior), Banff. By Tony Hisgett. Wikimedia Commons.

  • "Mountain chalet" theory of upconversion

    ("When climbing a tall peak it's nice to have a mountain chalet halfway up")

  • The shortest distance between two points is not always a straight line

    "Many steps are sometimes easier than one"

Pipelines and processing

Figure 13

"Before" - Word (OOXML) source

Figure 14

"After" - pulled into (reasonably clean) HTML

  • Having a carrier format in place early is helpful

  • At least data transmission is possible even while other aspects are tbd

  • Pipelines permit handling complex problems!

    By breaking down into simpler problems

  • Freeing up order of development priorities

    "Try it the other way around"

    • Early HTML production is an example of this

      Or, performing header promotion, and only then structural induction

    A system is no longer all-or-nothing


Many of the more challenging problems in data conversion are much more tractable when broken into parts or phases, than they are when conceived as single operations. Having an nominal carrier format already designed – even before other parts of a system are yet fully mature – is really helpful when we turn to building tools and processing, since one aspect of that problem at least (namely, what sorts of tags to use to express things), has been reduced, making it possible to focus on the more essential parts (what is the information being represented and processed).

Thus, even when HTML solves no problems for a conversion pipeline, it can expose them. This is itself is really useful.

So for example, a huge problem in data conversion is structural inferencing – how to determine appropriate structures latent in unstructured data: in transformation terms, allocating contents to structures properly in a result, even when the input is "soup". It is convenient, though not essential, that HTML can be used easily to represent data in both forms, before ("soupy") and after ("structured"), using HTML div or section elements to represent the structure.

It's getting from one form, to the other, that is the problem. Producing the soup from the structure is easy: that's why we call it "down". But to get structure from the soup is comparatively difficult, and solutions tend to be accordingly brittle, partial and limited. The process requires two distinct operations, not just one. First, the "signaling elements" that are taken to represent structural boundaries (in this case, section titles or other section demarcators), must be recognized. (For most purposes in structured documentary data, section titles serve as effective signals regarding at least some salient document structures. But this is not always the case.) Only once this has occurred (logically or temporally) does it become possible to render the structure itself. And rendering the structure is only possible if the signals line up.

This two-phase approach plays out easily in HTML: in the first phase, paragraphs that are "actually headers" can be promoted to h1-h6. In the second phase, the section structure is built up from the headers. Each of these is significantly easier, when it can be isolated from the other.

What's more, we can explain it this way, and anyone familiar with HTML can understand it. We don't need to educate them in a new data representation to make our methods explicable.

Pipelines, meta-pipelines, pipelines of pipelines

Figure 15

Examples of complex pipelines

  • Aggregation, splitting

  • Data analytics / synoptics

  • Metadata integration

  • Metadata-driven resource architectures

  • HTML tweaking

    Arbitrary tweak of HTML @class / @style - add/remove

    Configured for runtime w/ XML driver

  • Header promotion by induction

    • Filter paragraphs by formatting properties, reduce, count and sort them

    • Assign header level categories based on combinations of properties

    • Produce an XSLT from this (result of analysis) for this particular instance (or family member)

    • Apply this XSLT to original document to match and produce headers


A so-called "meta-pipeline" or "meta-transformation", loosely, might be any application of a transformation technology that is anything but the simple three-part source/transformation/result arrangement. Yet even within a simple architecture, pipelines will typically be made of pipelines, and transformations will include multiple "logical" and even "temporal" steps or stages, within both their specification(s) and their execution. More complex arrangements are possible and sometimes useful. These include not only pipelines of transformations in sequence (each one consuming the results of the precedent one) but also pipelines with extra inputs, spin-off results, or loops, wherein (for example) logic is produced in one branch that is then used to transform the results of another branch.

Because XSLT is syntactically homoiconic (canonically expressed in the same notation that it reads and produces, i.e. XML), it is a straightforward exercise to construct a pipeline whose transformation is itself generated dynamically. This is useful if we don't know what XSLT we will want, until runtime. If we can specify inputs to produce a transformation programmatically, we can delay its actual production until we have the data.

An example is the header promotion transformation as described above – a transformation of HTML data in which paragraphs (p elements) can be mapped into h1-h6 based on properties either assigned to them (in the data) or accessible and measurable. This is not a trivial operation, but it can be achieved using pipelines in and with XSLT.

The difficulty is that such a transformation depends on an assessment of which properties assigned to which paragraphs, separately and together, warrant promotion for that (type) of paragraph. The particulars of this assessment may only be fully discovered in view of the data itself. So a pipeline has to "inspect" and "assess" the data itself before it can produce its set of rules for handling it.

Thus, in a pipeline, header promotion can proceed in three steps: in the first step, and analysis of the data is conducted in which candidate (types of) block-level or p elements are selected and bound to (different levels of) header elements. In a second step, this analysis (result) is fed to a generic "meta-transformation" XSLT that produces a one-time use XSLT specifically for the data set. The third step is the application of this one-time custom-fit XSLT to the data, matching elements appropriately to produce headers from the p elements as directed.

As noted, HTML's lack of any kind of structural enforcement over its element set, is very advantageous here. A header promotion transformation can litter the result file with h1 - h6 elements, all without (much) concern either for formal validation or for predictable behavior in tools.

To be sure, such raw data may not be ready to bring into a structured environment, which will not permit such a free representation: but then, that is the point. The inference of div or section boundaries, once headers are in place, is another fairly straightforward operation – when the data warrants it.

Other similar examples of pipelines, metapipelines and multi-stage pipelines can be mentioned, including pipelines

  • Producing diagnostic outputs (document maps, error reports etc. etc.)

  • Referencing external (exposed) configurations or "drivers" to simplify operation

  • Enriching data sets (e.g. content type inferencing) by reference to rule sets, external authority files, or other criteria

Murky worlds

Figure 16

From The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy

Laurence Sterne, 1759.

  • Notice we leave aside issues having to do with (for example) fine points of HTML alignment

    • List structures, lists inside paragraphs ...

  • This is because we aren't validating!

    "Valid is in the eye of the beholder" and formal HTML validation buys us nothing

  • Instead, we promiscuously mix tag sets

    Regression testing as we proceed permits this to occur as a "shaping"

    End point is when our target data is strong not when process is (ever) finished

    We may well introduce other data enhancements along the way

  • This is upconversion, the task is endless


One interesting and unexpected consequence of distinguishing our temporary carrier format from our long-term hub format, is that it becomes possible to mix them on the way from one to the other. This may be regarded as cheating - certainly it feels a little different to write XSLTs that expect tagged inputs to be mixed, and to behave accordingly. Yet since the entire purpose of such XSLT is to clean up such tagging (i.e. to reduce the use of the uphill carrier format in favor of the hub format), this isn't actually a problem. It's something we can get used to.

In such murky worlds, the introduction of ad-hoc validation steps for even intermediate results, is sometimes useful. For example, a Schematron can tell whether an HTML file's headers (h1-h6 elements) are in "regular order", thus susceptible to serving as markers of a regularly-nested div or section structure. (One implementation of a rule enforcing regular order is that each header be either an h1, or not more than one level below the immediately preceding header. So an h4 can directly follow an h5 or h3, but not an h2.) Naturally, much emphasis is placed on assigning and managing values to @class and thereby abstracting semantic categories away from the literal code.

Work on validating profiles of HTML is critical to this. Schematron is one option. So is Gerrit Imsieke's Epischema In any case, when the goal remains clear – both valid and optimal expression in the target language – much remains forgiveable along the way. The relevant principle here is "Validation is in the eye of the beholder".

Another consequence of the "murky worlds" is that it becomes possible to implement features such as "passive upconversion". For example, a system that produces JATS from arbitrary HTML can easily be "sensitized" to produce certain JATS elements as soon as their names are found on HTML inputs, assigned via @class. This makes the implementation of mappings from any HTML into these JATS elements, as easy as seeing to it that the appropriate class value is provided in an HTML → HTML transformation – something relatively easy to configure and implement. (Especially using another meta-XSLT.)

Higher level logics

Figure 17

Some approaches to pyramid construction. SVG by Althiphika (CC BY-SA 3.0),, based on

  • Sometimes it turns out if we reverse the order of operations (assumptions), things can be easier

  • Operative principle is "try it the other way around"

  • For example, if we have prior knowledge as to document structure, a pull can be (much) easier to execute than an induction

  • HTML early is another example of this

  • Refactor, break the problem apart and "conquer in detail"

The last mile problem

Figure 18

A search on a popular search engine for "last mile problem" yields among other things this photo of the Esopus Meadows Lighthouse (Esopus New York). By John Hirth, CC-BY-SA.

Of course we are not interested in HTML (even clean) but (say) JATS, TEI or DITA

But many problems of going to SADF (standard average document format P Flynn) can be addressed in an HTML target, making subsequent conversion easy

E.g. header promotion, list induction

When this is not the case – we'd have had a problem anyway

Can this be scaled up? Perhaps not without process controls up front

(When is it better than a screen scrape: tipping point at ca. 30 MS pp?)

The case against HTML on the way up hill

Figure 19

Balloons over Cologne, 2010. Photo by the author.

Scaling problem?

  • XSweet is designed on the assumption that the problem splits into tractable and irreducible aspects

    • So XSweet addresses tractable problems

      • creating clean/vernacular HTML-something from Word

      While setting irreducible aspects aside

      • mapping arbitrary, implicit, local semantics into controlled content objects

    • Is this analysis correct?

      The flip side is that HTML-first offers a pipeline that is transparent and traceable throughout

Semantic inadequacy of HTML?

  • A carrier format can afford to be embarrassed about its syntax and even its semantics, if the job gets done

    In practice, extending CSS (slightly) has proven to be all that is ever needed


Fechner, Gustav. Life After Death: A Manual. Translated by Mary C. Wadsworth (1894); edited by Wendell Piez.

Gerrit Imsieke. Epischema – Schema Constraints That Facilitate Content Completion.

Haupt, Stefanie, and Maik Stührenberg. “Automatic upconversion using XSLT 2.0 and XProc: A real world example.” Presented at Balisage: The Markup Conference 2010, Montréal, Canada, August 3 - 6, 2010. In Proceedings of Balisage: The Markup Conference 2010. Balisage Series on Markup Technologies, vol. 5 (2010). doi:

Hyde, Adam. HTML Typescript – redistributing labor.

Piez, Wendell. “Framing the Problem: Building customized editing environments and workflows.“ Presented at Balisage: The Markup Conference 2016, Washington, DC, August 2 - 5, 2016. In Proceedings of Balisage: The Markup Conference 2016. Balisage Series on Markup Technologies, vol. 17 (2016). doi:

Piez, Wendell. (Lead developer.) XSweet. Producing HTML for editorial workflows.

Scott, Mark. Epigram Microphone, 2017. (NLM BITS format produced via XSweet from Word .docx format.

[Woodbury1890] Woodbury, Charles. Talks with Emerson. 1890. Edited by Wendell Piez.


Fechner, Gustav. Life After Death: A Manual. Translated by Mary C. Wadsworth (1894); edited by Wendell Piez.


Gerrit Imsieke. Epischema – Schema Constraints That Facilitate Content Completion.


Haupt, Stefanie, and Maik Stührenberg. “Automatic upconversion using XSLT 2.0 and XProc: A real world example.” Presented at Balisage: The Markup Conference 2010, Montréal, Canada, August 3 - 6, 2010. In Proceedings of Balisage: The Markup Conference 2010. Balisage Series on Markup Technologies, vol. 5 (2010). doi:


Hyde, Adam. HTML Typescript – redistributing labor.


Piez, Wendell. “Framing the Problem: Building customized editing environments and workflows.“ Presented at Balisage: The Markup Conference 2016, Washington, DC, August 2 - 5, 2016. In Proceedings of Balisage: The Markup Conference 2016. Balisage Series on Markup Technologies, vol. 17 (2016). doi:


Piez, Wendell. (Lead developer.) XSweet. Producing HTML for editorial workflows.


Scott, Mark. Epigram Microphone, 2017. (NLM BITS format produced via XSweet from Word .docx format.


Woodbury, Charles. Talks with Emerson. 1890. Edited by Wendell Piez.