Processing XForms in HTML5-Enabled Browsers

Tobias Niedl

Software Engineer

Anne Brüggemann-Klein

Technische Universität München

Copyright © 2013 by the authors. Used with permission.

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Processing XForms in HTML5-Enabled Browsers

Balisage: The Markup Conference 2013
August 6 - 9, 2013


Forms offer a structured interface to users for entering or editing information which is eventually submitted to some system for further processing. Forms play a crucial role on the Web. Early form technology enables interactivity on the Web beyond hyperlinking: With forms in a Web browser, users can activate services on the Web, after setting service parameters, and they will receive service results in the browser in a request-response cycle. Another use case is data entry, with forms in a Web browser acting as masks for database input. Recently, Sperberg-McQueen in personal discussion and workshop announcements has framed forms on the Web as padded-cell editors that allow for specialized editing of XML documents and data in a Web browser in a safe and easy-to-learn manner.

How has forms technology for the Web evolved over time? There are two lines of development:

The HTML strain has focused on the user interface. The forms module of HTML defines a set of widget or control elements; an HTML form contains a number of widgets and a target URL to which form data are to be submitted. HTML browsers display form widgets, support data entry and encode form data, transferring them to the form's target URL when submission of a form is activated.

The most recent version of HTML, namely HTML5, has expanded the set of widgets and has added type definitions to form elements, enabling native in-form data validation.

The XForms strain has brought data into focus. XForms separates the data of a form from its user interface; form data in XForms are XML documents that can be loaded into a form, edited via widgets and submitted to external services. An XForms processor supports the binding between a form's widgets and data, handles form events and executes form actions including load and submit of data.

XForms needs to be embedded into a host language, which most commonly is HTML. Nevertheless, in contrast to HTML forms, which are part of the W3C HTML Recommendation, Web browsers are not obliged to support XForms natively. Attempts to make XForms a true part of HTML in XHTML 2 have been abandoned by the W3C together with XHTML 2 in favor of HTML5. In fact, none of the current mainstream browsers support XForms natively. Browser plug-ins come closest to native XForms support. There used to be a Firefox plug-in Mozilla XForms that has no developer's support any more and is no longer compatible with current versions of Firefox. FormsPlayer, a plug-in XForms processor for Internet Explorer, is also no longer supported. Current XForms implementations (XSLTForms, BetterForms, Orbeon Forms) translate an XForms form into an HTML form and JavaScript code. There are purely client-side, purely server-side and distributed architectures for both the translator and the form execution code.

Tobias Niedl, the first author of this paper, has explored under supervision of the second author, as part of his Master Thesis at TU München, JavaScript and the new APIs that an HTML5-enabled Web browser provides as an implementation platform for an XForms processor. It turns out that the new facilities of HTML5-enabled browsers can be used to support XForms more natively. In a similar way as the plug-in solutions the code which executes the form is programmed directly, not generated. This removes a level of indirection in the interest of clarity and maintenance. But in contrast to plug-in solutions, it is platform independent, relying only on the APIs and the JavaScript that an HTML5-conformant browser supplies. For its reach, it capitalizes on the market power of the major browser vendors in the WHATWG[1], who stand behind HTML5.

Tobias Niedl has designed and implemented an XForms processor on the platform of an HTML5-enabled Web browser. A JavaScript program called xf.js sets up some data structures when an HTML page with an embedded XForms form is loaded and acts as an XForms processor during the lifetime of the document in the browser, making use of APIs that an HTML5-enabled Web browser must support.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: First, we derive the requirements for an XForms processor from the core features of XForms in section “Requirements for an XForms processor”. Since our target implementation platforms are Web browsers, we relate XForms features and XForms processor requirements to HTML forms.

In section “XForms building blocks on a Web browser” we discuss which building blocks an HTML5-enabled Web browser does or does not provide, in view of our requirements.

Finally, we discuss in section “The XForms processor xf.js” core principles, architecture and limitations of our implementation, illustrated with examples and screenshots.

Requirements for an XForms processor

Form systems share core functionality: A form offers a structured interface to users for entering or editing information which may then be further processed outside the form. In the realm of the Web, HTML has enabled data capture and interactivity beyond hyperlinking via forms since version 2. As its name implies, XForms leverages XML and related technologies. XForms extends HTML forms in providing essential innovations (cf. XFormsEssentials):

  • Data model: An XForms form holds its data in an explicitly defined, XML encoded data container, which is called the form's data model. A key point of XForms is that a form's data model is independent of its user interface.

  • Data types: Textual values in the data model can be declared to be of specific data types; XML Schema's predefined or user-defined data types (simple types) may be used.

  • Events: XForms builds on the W3C Recommendation XML Events. Form events, their targets and associated actions are declaratively represented by XML elements and attributes.

  • Widgets: XForms defines a rich set of widgets that has only recently been matched by the newest version of HTML, namely HTML5.

  • Repetitions: XForms has a number of container form controls, for repetitions, groupings and switching. XForms is the only forms technology on the Web that natively supports repeating groups of widgets under action control.

These innovations, whose value is discussed elsewhere XForms 1.1XFormsEssentialsFormsNG imply requirements for any XForms processor. We discuss these implications in detail below, contrasting them with the lesser requirements of HTML forms.

Data model

Form systems deal with data that initialize a form, are edited using the form and are eventually submitted to external systems for further processing.

XForms distinguishes between a data model, which carries the form's information, and the user interface, which makes the data model accessible to an XForms user. On submission, the data model (or a part of it) is transferred to an external service. The data model itself is encoded in XML. It can be seen as a structure of nodes carrying data (text nodes and attribute nodes in the XDM data model for XML).

XForms facilitates editing of data in the model in two alternative ways: The obvious first possibility is to use widget elements that are connected to nodes in the data model. Changing a widget's value in the user interface changes the value of the corresponding node in the model. The XForms processor propagates value changes to all widgets that might be connected to the same node, in Model-View-Controller fashion. The second and less obvious possibility to change the data model is by action elements which act as event handlers for form events. An action element is connected to a node (or a set of nodes) in the data model in the same way as a widget element. In both cases the connection to a node in the model, called a reference, is expressed by an XPath expression.

In contrast, HTML forms do not have explicit, separate data models. The model of an HTML form is implicitly defined by the widget elements in the form. It is a flat set of name-value pairs, implicitly ordered by the sequence of the widgets in the form. The model is generated on the fly when the form is submitted.

Hence, HTML forms do not separate data and input facilities the way XForms does. In addition, further processing of form data that originate from an HTML form usually necessitates data translation, whereas XForms data can be directly processed using XML technologies as in the zero-translation XRX[2] architecture.

It is immediately apparent that an XForms processor needs to support building, changing and serializing of XML structures and dynamic evaluation of XPath expressions.

Data types and data model validation

Form systems that support data types can offer type-specific data entry support such as date pickers and data validation without custom scripting. XForms offers a small number of proprietary data types and supports the built-in simple types of XML Schema. On top of that, the data model of a form can be constrained by an external schema with XML Schema custom data types (simple types) and also complex types. This ensures that not only updates to data values but also changes in the structure of the data model via actions are schema conformant.

Earlier versions of HTML forms did not provide type support. All data values were considered as text, for which custom validation rules could be scripted. HTML5 knows a small number of pre-defined data types, which can be customized declaratively by a few parameters and regular expressions, similar to restricting XML Schema simple types with facets. HTML5 data types are validated in conformant browsers. This is the big advantage of HTML5 over earlier versions of HTML with respect to forms.

A fully conformant XForms processor must be able to do XML Schema validation dynamically, also selectively for parts of the document.


Form systems handle events or signals that are activated in a form internally or under user control. For example, events can cause parts of a form to expand or collapse or value changes to be propagated to formulas that need to be re-evaluated, spreadsheet-like.

As to events, both HTML forms and XForms are based on the DOM Events W3C Recommendation[3]. DOM Events defines the structure of and processing rules for browser events. XForms goes beyond HTML forms in that it utilizes an XML encoding layer for DOM events, according to the W3C Recommendation XML Events[4].

A form reacts to an event by executing an action. In HTML forms, actions are custom-programmed pieces of script, often JavaScript; actions are associated with events by HTML-specific attributes (such as onclick) or by registration mechanisms that are specific to the scripting language in use. In contrast, XForms has predefined actions (such as message, setvalue or delete). XForms also specifies events beyond DOM Events. Most importantly, it uses the standardized XML encoding of XML Events to associate events with actions. XML Events defines how to encode event-related information in XML. With XML Events and XForms' predefined actions, the processing of specific events can be defined declaratively, reducing the need for scripting.

Consequently, an XForms processor needs to implement the predefined XForms actions and specific XForms events, and it must be able to interprete XML Event definitions, in addition to supporting DOM events and their processing model.


The most prominent feature of a form system is the set of widgets that is available for data entry. In this respect, XForms and HTML5 are basically equivalent, while earlier versions of HTML are slightly weaker [Pemberton 2003].


Forms need to display repeated data that can be manipulated with actions, such as repeating rows in a database table view. XForms provides the user-interface element repeat, which contains a template of inner widgets that will be instantiated for each portion of the block of data in the form's data that the repeat is connected with. Early versions of HTML do not support repetitions natively. Interestingly enough, repetition functionality has been a part of Webforms 2[5], a tributary to HTML5 that has been inspired by XForms, but has not made it into HTML5. Hence, no version of HTML forms supports repetitions, but XForms processors must support the repeat element.

To summarize, an XForms processor needs to satisfy the following requirements beyond those of a simple HTML forms processor:

  • Handling of XML data, including load and transmit.

  • Dynamic evaluation of XPath expressions.

  • Dynamic evaluation of (parts of) XML data against XML Schema.

  • Support for XForms widgets.

  • Support for the repeat element.

  • Implementation of XForms actions.

  • Support for XForms events.

  • Interpretation of XML Event definitions.

XForms building blocks on a Web browser

The implementation platform for our XForms processor xf.js is the HTML5-enabled browser. Referring back to the requirements for an XForms processor, we discuss in this section, which building blocks of an XForms processor an HTML5-enabled browser provides and what needs to be built in xf.js from scratch.


Today's Web browsers can parse XML files and translate them into data structures of a higher level of abstraction. Web browsers make these data structures available to programming languages via the standardized Document Object Model (DOM) interface. Furthermore, new DOM objects can be created in a Web browser under JavaScript control. JavaScript programs that run in the browser can read, modify and extend XML data in the browser via DOM. HTML5-enabled browsers support an advanced version of DOM that is specified by WHATWG and also addresses parsing and serialization of XML documents to and from DOM[6]. The XMLHttpRequest specification[7] enables modern Web browsers to transfer DOM objects or XML-encoded strings.


With Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 XPath Specification[8], W3C defines an interface to query a DOM object with an XPath 1.0 expression. The interface provides, among others, the following two methods:

  • The method evaluate() evaluates an XPath expression against a DOM node.

  • The method createNSResolver() generates a namespace resolver object for all namespace definitions that are in scope at a specific DOM node.

Modern Web browsers support this specification and its JavaScript binding.

XML Events and XML Schema

Current Web browsers support neither XML Events nor XML Schema.

Documents and XML submission

In a Web browser new DOM document objects can be created on the fly using JavaScript. As XForms requires to handle each data model as an independent document, browsers meet the requirements of XForms here.

A data model (or rather the document representing it) can be submitted as a XML string according to the XForms specification. Most Web browsers implement the XMLHttpRequest[9] interface which provides (a)synchronous communication to a Web server out of a JavaScript program. The data to be sent can be a String, a Document object or another type according to XMLHttpRequest specification. As each data model is handled as an independent DOM Document, and the XMLHttpRequest specification enables a browser to transfer such a Document without conversion, the combination of Document and XMLHttpRequest fits well for the mentioned XForms requirements.


Widgets in XForms and HTML5 have the same functional range but different names. Thus, an XForms processor can utilize HTML5 widgets after mapping, as shown in the following table. It can also utilize the data entry support and validation facilities of an HTML5-enabled browser, compensating at least partially for lacking XML Schema support.

Table I

XForms HTML5 Details
input input At default the XForms input widget enables free-form data entry (cf. XForms 1.1). The same is provided in HTML5 when the type attribute is not set or set to text.
output output -
label label -
trigger input, button In HTML5: The type attribute on the input element has to be set to button.
submit input In HTML5: The type attribute has to be set to submit.
secret input In HTML5: The type attribute has to be set to password.
textarea textarea -
upload input In HTML5: The type attribute has to be set to file. But see restrictions in xf.js below.
range input This is the only widget that needs HTML5 beyond earlier HTML versions. In HTML5: The type attribute has to be set to range. The values of additional attributes can be mapped as follows:
  • start (HTML5) to min (XForms)

  • end (HTML5) to max (XForms)

  • step (HTML5) to step (XForms)

select1 (full) input In HTML5: The type attribute has to be set to radio. In XForms there is one select1 containing a list of options. In HTML5 there must be one input element per option.
select1 (compact) option In HTML5: The size attribute has to be set to a value greater than "1". A browser will display it as a listbox.
select1 (minimal) option In HTML5: The size attribute has to be set to "1". A browser will display it as a drop down selection box.
select (full) input In HTML5: The type attribute has to be set to checkbox. In XForms there is one select containing a list of options. In HTML5 there must be one input element per option.
select (compact) option In HTML5: The size attribute has to be set to a value greater than "1". Additional the multiple attribute has to be set.
select (minimal) option In HTML5: The size attribute has to be set "1". Additional the multiple attribute has to be set.


HTML5-enabled browsers have no native support for repetitions in forms.

In conclusion, on the positive side, HTML5-enabled Web browsers have a good support for XML via the DOM interface. An XML document is made accessible through a DOM interface and nodes in the DOM can be accessed using XPath expressions. New DOM document objects can be created and edited. Browsers also provide widget elements which cover the functionality required by XForms.

On the negative side, even HTML5-enabled Web browsers do not support XML Events nor XML Schema nor repetitions in the user interface. An XForms processor running on the HTML5-enabled bowser platform either has to implement its own support for these technologies or has to neglect them, giving up some required functionality.

The XForms processor xf.js

This section describes the implementation of the prototypical pure JavaScript XForms processor called xf.js. The goal of the implementation was not to provide full support for XForms but to evaluate the capabilities of Web browsers with HTML5 as platform for a XForms processor.


As the goal was to discover browser capabilities, an easy to handle architecture was chosen. The xf.js processor implements a class for every supported XForms element (except the label element). These classes provide methods and class members for the specified attributes of the corresponding XForms element. When an object is instantiated, these members are initialized with the default values according to the XForms specification.

As Web browsers do not know the semantics of XForms widget elements, the DOM nodes of these elements are replaced by their HTML5 counterparts as shown in Table I.

The initialization of all objects, their relationships and the replacement of the widgets is done in a general parsing function, which is called after the browser has finished loading the document.


The following section introduces the architecture of the xf.js processor by introducing the class model.

The following image shows the underlaying class model of the xf.js processor. For simplicity the classes in the image do not contain method identifiers.

Figure 1: The class model of the xf.js processor

png image ../../../vol10/graphics/Niedl01/Niedl01-001.png

The functionality of the more important classes is described in the following sections.

xfModel class

The core of the processor is the xfModel object which belongs to a model element in the document. The object has connections to all objects of elements which are related to the model node in the document. This relations can be expressed in different ways. Child elements of the model element are related in a direct way (e.g. instance or bind). Widget and action elements can point to a model element by usage of the model attribute which contains the ID of a corresponding model element. Finally Widget and action elements can be implicit related to the first model element defined in the document, if they have no model attribute defined.

The xfModel class holds a reference to the DOM node of the corresponding model element and to the HTML5 form element which is generated during the parsing process.

The class also provides methods for operations on the model. The most important method is evaluate(), a central interface to evaluate XPath expressions concerning the data models hold by dedicated instance elements. XForms augments the XPath specification with its own functions. These XForms specific functions are of course not provided by the Web browser's XPath interface. Thus the xf.js processor has to handle them by itself and can not pass it through. Therefore a central evaluation method provides a good place to implement these additional XForms functions. The processor supports the additional functions instance() and index(). The evaluation method is also a well fitting place for another XPath related feature which is still not implemented: the implicit data model. If a node in the data model is referenced, which does not exist, it is created by the XForms processor according to the specification. The XPath interface of Web browsers does not provide such functionality. But the evaluate method of xfModel could easily provide this feature. If a XPath evaluation does not return any value, the next step should be to check on every part of that expression if a corresponding node exists. If this is not the case, the corresponding node could be generated by using the DOM interface.

For each xfModel object an HTML5 form element is created in the document. This form is an anchor to all HTML5 widgets which are created to replace the XForms widget elements. Each xfModel object holds a reference to its form element.

xfInstance class

The xfInstance class is used to handle instance elements which carry the data model of a form. In the processor one xfInstance object is generated for every instance element. At the current state of the implementation each xfInstance object holds a reference to the DOM node of the instance element to perform read and write operations on the data model. The XForms specification requests to handle all data models as independent documents. Thus operations should not take place in the main document itself. This feature would also be possible in a Web browser based XForms implementation, as browsers implement the createDocument() interface as defined in DOM Level 3 specification[10]. Thus a new XML document could be created and filled with the nodes defined inside the instance node. The xfInstance class provides also methods to serialize the data model. For the submission of the data model as XML, the implementation utilizes the XMLSerializer[11] to generate a XML string. For submission as name-value pairs the getDataAsHashMap() method flattens the model data down as specified by XForms before submission.

xfSubmission and xfWidgetSubmit

A xfSubmission object is responsible for the transmission of a data model. Each xfSubmission object is bidirectional attached to one xfModel object and thus has indirect access to the xfInstance objects holding the data to send. The main method is doSubmit() which performs the submission according to the parameters set. A data model can be submitted as XML document, or as name-value pairs according to HTML forms. The submission can be done using the methods POST, GET, PUT, DELETE or URLENCODED-POST as defined by XForms. To control which part of a data model should be submitted and which one should be replaced the processor implements the attributes ref, replace and targetref.

To start a submission a xfWidgetSubmit object is needed which is connected to a xfSubmission object. The object is created for a XForms submit element and represented to the user as HTML5 button. When the user clicks the button, the event of that click is handled at the xfWidgetSubmit object which calls the doSubmit() method of the connected xfSubmission object.


The xfBind class represents the XForms bind element. As XML Schema is not supported by browsers (and not implemented in the processor neither) xfBind allows type checking based on the HTML5 form check interface. The type attribute can be set to one of the following values as defined in HTML5: text, number, url, email, tel, date, time, datetime, datetime-local, month, week or color.

If a XForms input widget refers to a bind element with one of these type values, the type attribute of the generated HTML5 widget replacing the XForms widget will be set to this value leading to a deeper integration of XForms into HTML5. Before a data model is submitted, a check of the user input is done according to the type settings by usage of the checkValidity[12] interface which was introduced in HTML5 on the form element.


For every XForms widget element an appropriate xfWidget object is created, e.g. a xfWidgetTrigger object for a trigger element. As the browser does not know the semantics of the XForms widget elements they are replaced by their HTML5 counterparts according to Table I. Every xfWidget object holds a reference to the corresponding HTML5 widget.

To ensure a widget shows the actual value of the referenced node in the data model, the processor uses the Mutation observer[13] interface. The Mutation observer is going to be introduced in DOM 4 to replace the DOM Mutation Events. Every xfWidget object owns a mutation observer and a callback function which is executed by the observer. The observer is set to the referenced node in the data model and the callback function updates the widgets state to the current value of the node in the data model.

For simplicity the XForms label element is not handled as a own class. As a label element belongs to another widget element, the label's value is stored as attribute in the corresponding xfWidget object. Depending on the widget element the label's value is displayed as HTML5 label element, or on the widget element itself, e.g. as caption of a button.

xfRepeat and xfRepeatGroup

XForms provides the repeat element to display all child elements inside it multiple times. This functionality is given in the processor with the xfRepeat and xfRepeatGroup classes. The xfRepeat class represents the repeat element itself.

The repeat element refers to a nodeset in a data model. For every node in this set the elements inside the repeat element will be repeated. The xfRepeatGroup object is used to represent such a repeat. It contains a copy of all elements which are defined inside the repeat element of the superior xfRepeat object. Every xfRepeatGroup object also refers to one node of the repeat element's nodeset.

The processor supports the add and remove operations of such groups. When a new node is added to the nodeset, a new group is created and displayed. When a node is removed from the nodeset, the corresponding group is deleted and removed from the user interface.

Actions and events

The processor supports the action elements insert, setvalue, delete and message and the superior element action to group the others. Each element is represented by a xfAction class, e.g. xfActionMessage. Each object owns a class member event which contains the name of the event on which the object should react. In addition each object has a method perform() which implements the desired actions.

As Action elements belong to another XForms element, each xf class is able to hold references to one or more action objects. Each xf class also implements a method handleEvent(), a generic event handler for the underlying XForms element. When an event reaches the XForms element, the event handler is called which compares the event's name with the event name of each registered xfAction object. If the names match, the perform() method of the corresponding xfAction object is called.


As we have demonstrated, most of the XForms concepts can be implemented in a browser native XForms processor. But some concepts can not be covered. The restrictions can be divided into the following classes:

  • Missing technology in an HTML5-enabled Web browser.

  • Limitations of the platform (browsers and HTML5).

Missing technology

First of all, XML Schema support is missing completely as Web browsers today do not implement it. A solution for a browser based XForms processor would be to use a JavaScript based XML Schema implementation, as provided by xml.js[14].

The same holds for the support of XML Events. Mozilla seems to have had a XML Events implementation but it was rejected from core in 2012[15]. Therefore a XForms processor also has to implement the XML Events specification itself. The xf.js processor partially implements XML Events itself.

Limitations of the platform

To evaluate an XPath expression, a namespace resolver is needed which provides a mapping from namespace prefixes to their corresponding name. A namespace resolver can be build manually or by using the createNSResolver() method. It takes a DOM node n and builds a resolver which knows the namespaces and prefixes of all nodes from the document's root to the given node n. It is not possible to automatically generate a namespace resolver which knows the namespaces of the whole document (and not just a part of it). For the processor implementation this rises the question which node should be taken? It should be a node, at a very deep position in the document tree (to get as much namespace definitions as possible) and on a branch which will be evaluated by the XPath expression in the next step. But such a node can not be chosen without evaluating the XPath expression first. Therefore only the node of the instance element itself (or its first and only child node) can be taken as input for the createNSResolver function. This leads to the problem, that namespaces which are defined inside the data model can not be used and evaluating a XPath expression which contains such namespace prefixes will fail.

Another limitation is given at the document submission. XForms specifies both: synchronous and asynchronous submissions, whereas a synchronous submission means that the document holding the XForms is replaced by the server response. To provide the submission of XML data, the processor has to use the XMLHttpRequest interface. The interface is well suited for asynchronous data transfer (meaning that the document remains in the browser after a submit). But it does not provide functionality to replace the whole document with a server response.

As the xf.js processor is implemented in JavaScript all restrictions of the JavaScript interpreter in a Web browser also apply for the xf.js processor itself.

First, Web browsers do not permit access to the local file system to JavaScript programs. Thus saving a data model on the computer or opening an existing one cannot be implemented without using additional technologies, like Adobe Flash or another browser plug-in which is able to access the local file system. HTML5 defines the Web storage[16] interface which allows the storage of data on the local system in a key-value pair manner. But Web storage meets the requirements of XForms only partially as XForms allows the specification of a URL pointing into the local file system for storing the data model. Browsers providing the Web storage interface act as a simple database, but do not allow the user to choose the destination of the stored information.

Second, Web browsers prevent scripts from accessing other sites (with different host name, port, etc.). Thus the submission of data to an URL different from the one the current loaded document is not possible for security reasons.

The JavaScript restrictions also prevent a working upload widget element. In XForms the content of a file, which was selected using the upload widget, can be embedded into the data model as binary content. The HTML5 counterpart widget has no interface to fetch the file content via JavaScript. As the access to local files is not possible in general, a pure JavaScript based XForms processor lacks this feature.


The xf.js processor uses a straight forward architecture. Each XForms element is represented by a corresponding object. After loading the document, a parser instantiates the needed objects and connects them in the desired way. In a second step each widget element is replaced by its HTML5 counterpart.

The xf.js processor supports multiple model elements in a document and multiple instances inside a model element. Nodes in the data model can either be referenced directly with a XPath expression by using the appropriate attribute (ref or nodeset) or by using bind elements in the data model. A data model can be submitted as XML or as name-value pairs according to form submission in HTML.

For this purposes the xf.js processor supports the following elements: model, instance, bind and submission. For the user interface, the elements label, input, output, trigger, submit and repeat are supported. To show the capabilities of Web browsers towards events, the xf.js processor implements the Action elements insert, setvalue, delete, message and the element action itself to group multiple other Action elements. These elements can react on events generated by the Web browser (implementation currently supports DOMActivate) and on XForms specific events (xforms-ready is implemented), which are generated by the processor itself.

To validate user inputs the xf.js processor uses some of the types defined by HTML5, e.g. number, text, datetime, etc. These types can be used with a bind element, like XML Schema types in other processors.


As already mentioned, the xf.js processor has an easy to implement architecture where each supported XForms element is represented as a class. Such a class is instantiated for every XForms element used in a document. The members of the objects are filled with the values given in the element attributes. This architecture has the draw back of creating a shadow model of all information which are already present in the loaded document and accessible via the DOM.

Therefore a new version of the processor is going to be implemented with a different architecture. Instead of creating an object for every XForms node in the DOM the existing DOM nodes should be used directly. This includes the enhancement of the DOM nodes with a set of JavaScript functions which provide the needed functionality for every node. E.g. the DOM node of a XForms message element node gets a function perform() associated which displays the defined message to the user when called.

An important functionality is the support of XML Schema which is not given at the moment. It has to be checked if JavaScript implementations for XML Schema can be used for the xf.js processor.

We plan to make the source code of the new version public as soon as it has reached some kind of maturity.

Appendix A. Examples and screenshots

Finally we want to show the results of the implementation with a set of examples and screenshots. The XForms source is given on each example.

Widget replacement

The first example shows how the document is modified when the XForms widget elements are replaced by HTML5 widgets.

This XForms code:

  <xf:input ref="data"> 
    <xf:label>Input: </xf:label>
  </xf:input> <br />
  <xf:output value="data">
    <xf:label>Result: </xf:label> 
Will result in the following XHTML5 code:
  <label>Input: </label>
  <input type="text" name="FNinput_Input" value="Back to the Future" form="FN_model1" />
  <br />	
  <label>Output: </label>
  <output name="output" form="FN_model1">Back to the Future</output>
  <form id="FN_model1"></form>

It will be displayed as follows:

Figure 2: The user interface in the browser

png image ../../../vol10/graphics/Niedl01/Niedl01-002.png

Changes in the data model

The data model can be changed using widget elements as in the previous example or using action elements. The following shows the XForms code to set a value in the data model after the user has clicked on a button:

<xf:model id="model2">
    <timeTravellers xmlns="">
      <name>Marty McFly</name>
      <name>Dr. Emmet Brown</name>
      <name>Jennifer Parker</name>

  <xf:instance id="inst2">
    <timeMachine xmlns="">

    <xf:label>Click me</xf:label>
    <xf:setvalue ev:event="DOMActivate" ref="instance('inst2')/name" model="model2">DeLorean DMC-12</xf:setvalue>
  <br />
  <xf:output ref="instance('inst2')/name" model="model2">
    <xf:label>Time machine: </xf:label>
This code will lead to the following behaviour in the browser:

Figure 3: Updating the data model with events: Before the click

png image ../../../vol10/graphics/Niedl01/Niedl01-003.png

Figure 4: Updating the data model with events: After the click

png image ../../../vol10/graphics/Niedl01/Niedl01-004.png

Repeating groups

The xf.js processor also provides support for the XForms repeat element. We use the following XForms code as example:

    <xf:repeat id="carRepeat" nodeset="car">
      <xf:input ref=".">
        <xf:label>Car </xf:label>
      <br />
      <xf:label>Insert new car at beginning</xf:label>
      <xf:action ev:event="DOMActivate">
        <xf:insert nodeset="car" at="1" position="before"/>
        <xf:setvalue ref="car[1]/text()">Porsche</xf:setvalue>
      <xf:label>Delete last car</xf:label>
      <xf:delete ev:event="DOMActivate" nodeset="car" at="last()"/>

The following images show the website after initialization, after a click on the insert button and after a click on the delete button:

Figure 5: The repeat group after initialization

png image ../../../vol10/graphics/Niedl01/Niedl01-005.png

Figure 6: The repeat group after an insert operation

png image ../../../vol10/graphics/Niedl01/Niedl01-006.png

Figure 7: The repeat group after a delete operation

png image ../../../vol10/graphics/Niedl01/Niedl01-007.png


[XFormsEssentials] Micah Dubinko: XForms Essentials. O'Reilly 2003.

[FormsNG] Hofmann/Liebermann: XForms: The Next Generation of Internet Interfaces. Augsburg 2004.

[Pemberton 2003] Steven Pemberton. XForms for HTML Authors. [last accessed 24. Mar 2013].

[XForms 1.1] John M. Boyer [Editor]. XForms 1.1 W3C Recommendation 20 October 2009. [last accessed 24. Mar 2013].

Author's keywords for this paper: xf.js; XForms; HTML5; Forms